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Broadband
The term broadband has meant different things to different groups and has changed over time since about the 1980’s. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) currently defines broadband as advanced telecommunication services with transmission speeds exceeding 200 kilobits per second (kbps)* both upstream and downstream. Other groups, such as the Swedish governmental commissions consider 5 megabits per second (Mbps)** symmetrical connections to the user to define broadband. Although there have been extreme variations in the definition of what constitutes “broadband,” most would agree that what appears to be adequate bandwidth capacity today will likely prove inadequate in the future. Broadband in this context refers to technologies such as DSL and Cable Internet. These technologies are considered “narrowband” in relation to Next Generation Internet technologies.
kbps is defined as 1,024 bits per second, whereas a KB (kilobyte) is 1,024 bytes
Mbps is defined as 1,024 Kilobits or 1,048,576 bits per second for one megabit per second
  “Promise, Pitfalls on Road to Municipal Broadband.”   Broadband Business Report, February 25, 2003    
  FCC adopts rules for unlicensed use of television white space   FCC Public Notice   November 4, 2008   http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-286566A1.pdf . Link Accessed: 2008-11-10.  
Arlen, G.   "Gig-E in the average broadband home."   Multichannel News. 23:1   2002  
Bar, Francois; Cohen, Stephen; Cowhey, Peter; DeLong, Brad; Kleeman, Michael, and Zysman, John.   "Access and innovation policy for the third-generation internet."   Telecommunications Policy. 2000; (24):489-518.    
Bast, Joseph, L.   “Municipally Owned Broadband Networks: A Critical Evaluation.”       http://www.heartland.org/pdf/10687.pdf. Link Accessed: 2003-07-31.  
Brown, Justin.   “Fostering the Public’s End-to-End: A Policy initiative for separating Broadband transport from Content.”   Communication Law and Policy. Spring, 2003. Volume 8, no. 2.    
Butler, Arthur A., Paisner, Joel R.   Deciding Whether to Build a Municipal Broadband Network, Choosing the Best Business Plan and Entity”       http://www.mrsc.org/Subjects/telecomm/LSIProgramMaterials.pdf. Link Accessed: 2004-02-22.  
Camp, Jeffrey; Gomezjurado, Jaime; Grogan, Sean.   "Next-Gen Networks- Part 1: The Economics of Networks."   Morgan Stanley: Telcom-Internet Infrastructure Services; 2001 Sep 28.    
Carnegie Mellon University and 3 Rivers Connect.   "Digital Rivers Final Report."       http://www.digitalrivers.info/html/report.html. Link Accessed: 2003-07-07.  
Cauley, Leslie   FCC could free up 'white space' for broadband use   USA Today     http://www.usatoday.com/printedition/money/20081103/whitespace.art.htm . Link Accessed: 2008-11-04.  
Cohen, Dan.   "The Telecommunications Explosion: Protect your Community Through a Strong Right-of-Way Ordinance."   Public Management. 2001 Sep; v83( 8):21.    
Committee on Broadband Last Mile Technology, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board National Research Council.   "Broadband: Brining Home the Bits."   Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001 Fall.     http://www.nap.edu/html/broadband/. Link Accessed: 2003-07-08.  
Ethernet First Mile Alliance.   "Ethernet First Mile: Making Universal Broadband Access a Reality."   A white paper by EFMA. 2002.     http://www.efmalliance.org/EFMAwhitepaper_0531.pdf. Link Accessed: 2003-07-08.  
Ford, George, S., Koutsky, Thomas, M.   Municipal Broadband Networks and Economic Development: A Case Study from Florida   Applied Economic Studies   April 2005   http://www.publicpower.com/telecom_study/municipal_broadband_&_economic_development.pdf. Link Accessed: 2005-06-01.  
Friedman, David   One-Dimensional Growth   The Atlantic Monthly   January/Feburary, 2003   http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2003/01/friedman.htm. Link Accessed: 2003-01-09.  
Garcia, D. Linda.   "The Architecture of Global Networking Technologies."      
Garretson, Cara.   "Broadband outlook for 2002: Hazy."   http://www.nwfusion.com/news/2002/0123bb.html. Accessed on April 1, 2002   January 23, 2001.  
Kelly, Doris   A Study of the Economic and Community Benefits of Cedar Falls, Iowa’s Municipal Telecommunications Network     October 2003   http://www.iprovo.net/projectInfoDocs/economicAndCommunityBenefitsStudy.pdf. Link Accessed: 2005-06-01.  
Krim, Joanthan.   "Cable Firms Faulted for Restrictions on Internet Service."     June 28, 2002.   http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A58542-2002Jun27?language=printer. Link Accessed: 2003-07-08.  
Krim, Jonathan.   "Does Fast Internet Need a Push?"   Washington Post. A01.   2002-01-15  
Lenard, Thomas.   “Government entry into the telecom business: Are the benefits commensurate with the costs?”     Februrary 2004   http://www.pff.org/publications/communications/pop11.3govtownership.pdf. Link Accessed: 2004-04-09.  
Leopold, George.   "U.S. takes a hard look at broadband deployment."   EETimes. 2002, May 23.     http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20020523S0041. Link Accessed: 2003-07-08.  
McGarty, P Terrence., Bhagavan, Ravi.   “Municipal Broadband Networks: A revised Paradigm of Ownership”   The Merton Group   2002   http://www.mertongroup.com/Municipal%20Broadband%20Networks.pdf. Link Accessed: 2004-02-20.  
Motohiro, Tsuchiya., Thierer, Adam.   "Is America Exporting Misguided Telecommunications Policy? The U.S.-Japan Telcom Trade Negations and Beyond."   Cato Institute Briefing Papers. No. 79. January 7, 2003    
Odlyzko, Andrew.   “Content is Not King.”   First Monday, Volume 6, number 2, (February 2001).     http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue6_2/odlyzko/. Link Accessed: 2003-07-07.  
Segan, Sascha   Why We Need White-Space Broadband   PC Magazine - online   October 23, 2008   http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2333115,00.asp?kc=PCRSS05039TX1K0000748. Link Accessed: 2008-11-04.  
Sydell, Laura   Turning White Space into Wireless - audio   www.npr.org - Day to Day   April 15, 2008   http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89652413&sc=emaf. Link Accessed: 2008-11-04.  
The Swedish ITC Commission.   "General guide to a future-proof IT infrastructure."     2001.   http://poseidon.umdc.umu.se/guide.pdf. Link Accessed: 2003-07-08.  
Thibodeau, Patrick.   "TechNet Pushes for Broadband Boost."     2002, Jan 16.   http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,79863,00.asp. Link Accessed: 2003-07-08.  
Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J.   "Will 10-Gigabit Ethernet Have a Bright Future?"   Computer. 2002 Jun; 35(6):22-24.    
Weber, Tom.   "Is Broadband the Answer? Unfortunatley, Not Always."   The Wall Street Journal Online. 2002 Jan.    
Zellmer, David B.   "The Knowledgeable City: A Networked, Knowledge-Based Strategy for Local Governance and Urban Development."   A Major Paper submitted for Masters of Urban and Regional Planning, Virginia Tech.   April 6, 2001.  
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